Short Range RF Testing (US Testing)
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This auction ended on November 8, 2013 @ 12:00 AM EST

Short Range RF Testing (US Testing)

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Bidding only available to labs with testing facilities in the United States or Canada

Auction Description

We are looking for accredited testing labs to conduct the following testing, our client is looking for 2 projects a month for the next few months. Please contact us at sales@testingpartners.com for more information and to discuss this opportunity. Must be able to start immediately: (Complete Spec attached)

SHORT RANGE RADIO FREQUENCY (RF) DEVICES

62 General

62.1 These requirements cover the operation of control units and systems that utilize initiating,
annunciating, and remote control devices that provide signaling by means of low power radio frequency
(RF) in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 47, Part 15. Such control units and
systems shall comply with Sections 1 – 61 of this standard except that in the event of conflict, the
requirements of this section shall apply.
62.2 These requirements are applicable:
a) To a system configuration consisting of multiple transmitters and a single receiver with the
transmitters operating on a random basis and
b) With modifications, to a system employing such configurations as multiple receivers or a
two-way interrogate response system.
62.3 Initiating circuit transmitters that are powered by a nonrechargeable (primary) battery shall serve
only one device and shall be individually identified at the receiver/control unit.
Exception: More than one device may be served by one transmitter if:
a) The transmitter and the devices are located in the same room and
b) The devices all service the same function such as
1) Door contacts,
2) Window contacts,
3) Motion detectors, or
4) Glass break detectors.

62.4 A repeater is a transceiver (transmitter/receiver) that is used to receive transmissions from
transmitters and relay the signals to the receiver/control unit. A repeater shall comply with all of the
requirements that apply to a transmitter.
62.5 A transmitter that is powered from a nonrechargeable (primary) battery, may shut down for a
maximum period of 3 minutes after a transmission sequence in order to conserve its battery if it is used
with a motion detector, a public door, or other application where it would be frequently triggered during
the disarmed period of the alarm system. After the 3 minute shut down, the transmitter shall initiate a
transmission sequence the next time the device that it is connected to is operated.

63 Time to Report Alarm
63.1 The transmitter/receiver combination shall be arranged so that the occurrence of an alarm or
emergency condition at any transmitter will be immediately communicated to the receiver/control unit and
from there to the central-station. Under unusual or abnormal operating conditions (such as clash or
interference), this signal may be delayed for a period not exceeding 90 seconds.

63.2 An alarm signal from an RF initiating device shall latch at the receiver/control unit until manually
reset and shall identify the particular RF initiating device in alarm.
Exception No. 1: If the identification of the RF initiating device is transmitted to the central-station, latch-in
is not required.
Exception No. 2: Check-in signals required by Inoperative Transmitter Reporting, Section 64, are not
required to latch and identify.

63.3 To provide higher priority to alarm and emergency signals than to other signals, such signals shall
be either continuous or periodically repeated at intervals not exceeding 60 seconds until the initiating
device is returned to its normal condition. If the signal is continuous, the transmitter shall be limited to a
maximum 15 percent duty cycle measured over a 1-minute interval.

64 Inoperative Transmitter Reporting

64.1 A receiver/control unit shall report an inoperative transmitter in the system to the central-station
within 4 hours after the transmitter becomes inoperative. The report shall indicate that there is an
inoperative transmitter and shall:
a) Identify the transmitter or
b) The identity of the transmitter shall be latched-in at the receiver/control unit.

64.2 The normal periodic transmission from a wireless initiating device shall, by transmitting at a reduced
power level of at least 3 decibels or by other means, provide additional assurance of successful alarm
transmission capability.

64.3 The requirements of 64.2 are met through compliance with Sections 71, 73, 74, and 76.

65 Battery Status Indication

65.1 A transmitter shall supervise the capacity of the battery. The battery shall be monitored while loaded
by:
a) Transmission of the transmitter or
b) A load equivalent to the load imposed by transmission.
65.2 A trouble status signal shall be transmitted to the receiver before the battery capacity of the
transmitter has depleted to a level insufficient to power the unit for a minimum of 7 days. The trouble signal
shall be retransmitted at intervals not exceeding 4 hours until the battery is replaced or is depleted.

65.3 The battery (of the transmitter) shall be capable of operating the transmitter, including the initiating
device (if powered by the same battery), for not less than 1 year of normal signaling service before the
battery depletion threshold specified in 65.2 is reached.

65.4 Annunciation of low battery trouble at the receiver/control unit shall be distinctly different from alarm,
supervisory, tamper, and initiating device trouble signals. It shall consist of an audible and visual signal
which shall identify the affected transmitter.

65.5 The battery trouble status signal may be transmitted at the normal supervisory status report time of
the transmitter. The audible annunciation of a battery trouble signal at the receiver/control unit may be
delayed for a maximum period of 4 hours.

65.6 The audible signal of the receiver may be silenceable if provided with an automatic feature to
reinstate the signal at intervals not exceeding 4 hours.

65.7 The trouble status signal shall persist at the receiver/control unit until the depleted battery has been
replaced.

65.8 Any mode of failure of a nonrechargeable (primary) battery in an initiating device transmitter shall
not affect any other initiating device transmitter.

66 Tamper Protection
66.1 Removal of a transmitter from its installed location or the removal of a cover exposing its battery
shall cause immediate transmission of a signal to the receiver/control unit that will, in turn, result in a
trouble signal individually identifying the affected device being transmitted to the central-station. When the
system is in the armed condition, the signal to the central-station shall be an alarm signal. When the
system is in the disarmed condition, the signal to the central-station may be a trouble signal.
Exception: If the affected transmitter is identified with a latched-in display at the receiver/control unit, the
signal to the central-station need not identify the transmitter.
67 Interference Protection

67.1 Reception of any unwanted (interfering) transmission by a repeater, or by the receiver/control unit
for a continuous period of 20 seconds or more, that would inhibit any status change signaling within the
system, shall result in a trouble signal being transmitted to the central-station which shall identify the
specific trouble condition (interfering signal).
Exception: If the condition is identified with a latched-in display at the receiver/control unit, the signal to
the central-station may be a general trouble signal.
68 Reference Level Determination

68.1 Method I

68.1.1 The reference level test is not intended to determine the actual service communication range of a
transmitter/receiver combination. Rather, this data is utilized as a reference level for the testing specified
in Sections 69 – 76. The range determined during the ideal conditions of this test is not to be considered
representative of the actual range within a building structure, which will probably be significantly less.

68.1.2 A transmitter/receiver combination shall operate for its intended signaling performance when
tested in a configuration at minimum signal strength, measured at the receiver, as specified in the
manufacturer’s installation instructions. The tests are to be conducted in an open, flat area characteristic
of cleared, level terrain. Such test sites are to be:
a) Void of buildings, electrical lines, fences, trees, or the like,
b) Free from underground cables, pipes, lines, or the like, except as required to supply and
operate the equipment under test, and
c) Free of snow and water accumulations.
The ambient radio noise level and other undesired signals are to be sufficiently low (see Methods Of
Measurement Of Radio-Noise Emissions From Low-Voltage Electrical And Electric Equipment In The
Range Of 9 kHz to 40 GHz, ANSI C63.4-1991) so as not to interfere with the measurements. Any large
reflecting object, such as a metal fence or the like, is to be sufficiently far from the test site so as not to
influence the test results. See Figure 68.1.
Exception: In lieu of the condition of a ground plane may be used. The ground plane is to (1) cover, at
least, the area required to be free of reflecting objects shown in Figure 68.1 and be constructed of wire
mesh with 1/4 (6.4 mm) to 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) openings or the equivalent.

68.1.3 The equipment under test is to be positioned as intended in use on a wooden or other
nonconducting table and framework that will permit the transmitter and receiver to be relatively oriented
for worst-case communication. The mounting of the table on the framework is to be arranged so that the
table surface can be adjusted to elevations of 5, 10, and 20 feet (1.5, 3, and 6 m). The number of
elevations and relative positions may be reduced if the manufacturer’s installation instructions provide
specific limitations relating to orientation, as well as a method of testing as specified in 68.1.4.
68.1.4 Worst-case communication is that relative orientation between transmitter and receiver that results
in the minimum field strength specified by the manufacturer, measured at the receiver by the appropriate
installation aids and test equipment designated for that purpose.

68.1.5 The equipment and procedures specified in the installation instructions are to be used to establish
test installation of the RF system.

68.1.6 A sample transmitter with fresh batteries and a sample receiver are to be placed on similar tables,
as specified in 68.1.3, resulting in a separation at the maximum range specified for the transmitter/receiver
combination.

68.1.7 A transmitter is to be remotely activated by a nonconductive mechanism that will not increase the
effective radiating or receiving size of the antenna. 

68.1.8 The transmitter or receiver is to be rotated through a 90-degree angle in each of the three
orthogonal axes with either the transmitter or receiver fixed in position, and the level of the received signal
is to be observed for worst-case communication. The test is to be conducted at the 5-, 10-, and 20-foot
(1.5-, 3-, and 6-m) elevations or as otherwise specified in 68.1.3.

68.1.9 The test is to be repeated with batteries depleted to the trouble level as specified in 65.1 – 65.4.
For the purpose of this requirement, a depleted battery is defined as a battery that is at the level (terminal
voltage under load) that results in a trouble signal as required in 65.1 – 65.4. For test purposes, a depleted
battery may be replaced by a circuit arrangement that does not affect the RF characteristic (6 decibels
as measured at the receiver), but does simulate the characteristics of a depleted battery as specified in
65.2.

68.2 Method 2

68.2.1 This test may be alternately conducted in a 3-m (9.84-feet) site as described in
a) Recommended Methods of Measurement of Radiated and Conducted Interference From
Receivers for Amplitude-Modulation, Frequency Modulation, and Television Broadcast
Transmissions, IEC Standard Publication 106-1974 or
b) Methods Of Measurement Of Radio-Noise Emissions From Low-Voltage Electrical And
Electronic Equipment In The Range Of 9 kHz To 40 GHz, ANSI C63.4-1991.
If Method 2 is used, the test methodology described in 68.1.1 – 68.1.9 is to be followed except that the
attenuation factors for receiver/transmitter specified in Figure 68.2 are to be utilized as scaling factors.


68.2.2 68.2.3 – 68.2.5 specify details in applying Method 2.

68.2.3 Attenuation is to be determined from the equation:

A = 20 log10D + 20 log10Fm - 36.6
in which:
A is the attenuation in decibels.
D is the manufacturer’s specified range.
Fm is the operating frequency in megahertz.
36.6 is the derived numerical value assuming that ground reflection is 4.7 dB average.

68.2.4 The attenuation factor for a reference signal at 3 m (9.84 feet) is to be determined from the
equation:
AC = AD - A3M
in which:
AC is the attenuation factor.
AD is the attenuation at manufacturer’s specified range.
A3M is the attenuation at 3-meter distance.
Table 68.1 specifies the attenuation factors, AD, for absolute attenuation at the manufacturer’s specified
range and the attenuation relative to the 3-meter test distance, AC.



68.2.5 Figure 68.2 depicts attenuation curves for signals at 40, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, and
450 megahertz. The attenuation adheres to a slope of 20 decibels per decade at a given frequency.
68.2.6 The reference level is the measured signal level at 3 meters minus AC.

69 Interference Immunity

69.1 A receiver/transmitter combination at maximum range shall operate for its intended signaling
performance in both a Radio Quietand a Radio Noisyenvironment. See 69.2 and 69.3. Also see Error
(Falsing) Rate, Section 73, and Throughput Rate, Section 74.

69.2 For the purpose of this requirement, a Radio Quietenvironment is one in which the interference
signal magnitude level is at least 20 decibels peak below the desired signal as determined by 68.1.4 within
the frequency band of the signal, as measured at the receiver.

69.3 For the purpose of this requirement, a Radio Noisyenvironment is one in which the interference
signal level is 10 – 20 decibels peak below the desired signal as determined by 68.1.4, as measured at
the receiver. This condition is intended to test the receiver’s ability to discriminate the desired signal from
background noise under worst-case conditions.

69.4 A Radio Noisyenvironment is to be created by each of the sources specified in items A, B, and
C, connected to modulate the amplitude of an RF oscillator at 100 percent. The signal strength is to be
measured at the receiver with a spectrum analyzer or other acceptable instrument to determine that the
signal intensity is within the parameters defined for a Noisyenvironment. The interference is to emanate
from a tuned 1/2 wave dipole antenna, capable of 360 degrees rotation in order to vary the polarization.
a) A white noise generatora modulating an RF signal generatorb in which the frequency is varied
5 percent about the signaling frequency.
b) Variable frequency audio oscillatorc varied between 20 hertz to 40 kilohertz, modulating an RF
signal generator in which the frequency is varied 5 percent about the:
1) Carrier frequency,
2) Image frequency, if applicable, and
3) Intermediate frequency (IF), if applicable.
c) A square wave generatord varied between 20 hertz to 40 kilohertz, modulating an RF signal
generator in which the frequency is varied 5 percent about the:
1) Carrier frequency,
2) Image frequency, if applicable, and
3) Intermediate frequency (IF), if applicable.
aGeneral Radio Model 1382 rated 20 – 50 kilohertz or the equivalent.
bHewlett Packard Model 8640B with frequency doubler option or the equivalent.
cHewlett Packard Model 654A signal generator modulating the RF signal generator (or the equivalent) or
may utilize the variable audio oscillator option.
dSquare wave generator to modulate the RF signaling generator. The output impedance of the square
wave generator shall match the input impedance of the RF signal generator.
69.5 Each of the interference signals specified in 69.4 shall not cause false alarming; however, they may
cause a jamming or a loss of transmitter indication. Operation of the receiver/transmitter combination shall
comply with the requirements for the Error (Falsing) Rate and Throughput Rate, Sections 73 and 74.

70 Frequency Selectivity
70.1 If a product utilizes multiple frequencies, a receiver shall not respond to any signal having a:
a) Signal strength equivalent to the most powerful system transmitter located at a distance of 32.8 feet (10 m) from the receiver and
b) Frequency shifted more than two working channel widths of the system, as measured between
the manufacturer’s rated upper and lower frequency limits of the receiver/transmitter combination.

For example, if the communication channel is 5 megahertz wide, any signal with a similar band width,
even one with identical coding, the center frequency of which is shifted by more than 10 megahertz, shall
be ignored by the receiver.
70.2 A receiver is to be connected to a source of rated supply and is to be positioned for intended use
in a Radio Quietenvironment.

70.3 A sample transmitter that is adjusted for receiver-acceptable information is to be tuned to a center
frequency that is shifted from the receiver’s tuned center frequency by twice the band width of the
transmitter/receiver combination. The transmitter then is to be repeatedly activated as specified in 70.1,
and the receiver shall not provide an output to any signal transmitted.

70.4 This test is to be conducted for frequencies above and below the receiver frequency, including a
minimum of ten additional frequencies randomly selected about the center frequency (0.5 MHz – 1.024
GHz) and outside the frequency as specified in 70.1.

70.5 The test is to be monitored by a spectrum analyzer or other acceptable instrument to verify
transmitter output.

70.6 For test purposes, if the operating frequency or signal level, or the like, of a transmitter cannot be
varied, the transmitter may be partially replaced by an RF signal generator or the entire transmitter
assembly may be replaced by a combination of a programmable processor and an RF signal generator.
The processor is to produce the base band signal which modulates the RF signal generator output,
provided that similar signal levels are generated at the receiver.

71 Clash
71.1 For the purpose of these requirements, clash is a loss of alarm signal information at the receiver for
a period greater than 90 seconds as a result of two or more transmitters being concurrently activated
when only one is in an alarm mode so that their transmitted signals interfere with each other.

71.2 The calculated clash rate for any given system is a derivative of the:

a) Maximum number of transmitters (transmitters for neighboring systems are not to be
considered),

b) Duration of individual transmission,

c) Transmission rate,
d) Coding scheme,

e) Error (falsing) rate, and

f) Prioritization.
When determining this rate for each type of signal noted in (a) – (d) in 71.3, each specified factor is to be
considered in the evaluation. The manufacturer shall provide a derivation of the rate. This derivation shall
provide an explicit definition of the requirements for clash and shall describe all the assumptions and
equations used in the derivation of the clash rate.

71.3 The clash rate relative to normal status transmissions for each specific signal shall not exceed the
following values:
a) 0.0001, for fire signals.
b) 0.0002, for medical or panic signals.
c) 0.0005, for security signals.
d) 0.005, for other signals, not including the check-in signals required to comply with Inoperative
Transmitter Report, Section 64.

71.4 If an alarm signal and another signal, alarm or otherwise, are transmitted at precisely the same time,
the signal received at the receiver shall be correct for one of the two, or both, or shall not be accepted by
the receiver as a correct signal.

72 Clash Error

72.1 A receiver shall demonstrate a zero clash error rate while subjected to the test conditions described
in 72.3 – 72.5.

72.2 For the purpose of these requirements, clash error is defined as the misinterpretation by the receiver
of two simultaneous or overlapping valid transmitter signals that result in the receiver locking-in and
annunciating a third (false) signal.

72.3 The receiver is to be mounted in a position of intended use and energized from a source of rated
supply. Two transmitters, energized from a rated source of a supply or from a DC power supply in place
in their nonrechargeable (primary) batteries, are to be placed in close proximity to the receiver and
orientated such that the manufacturer’s specified signal strength is present at the receiver. The address
of each transmitter is to be set such that the logical orof the two addresses is a valid address
recognized by the receiver.

72.4 One transmitter is to then be conditioned for continuous alarm transmission. The other transmitter is
to be conditioned to transmit an alarm signal once every 2 seconds for a total of 100,000 transmissions.

72.5 The test described in 72.3 and 72.4 is to be repeated while one transmitter is conditioned for
continuous alarm transmission and the other transmitter is conditioned to transmit a normal supervisory
status signal once every 2 seconds for a total of 100,000 transmissions.

73 Error (Falsing) Rate

73.1 For the purpose of these requirements, the error (falsing) rate is a measure of the ability of a receiver
to discriminate between correct and incorrect transmission so that false or erroneous signals are not
accepted by the receiver as valid status indications from the various transmitters in the system. The
transmitter/receiver shall comply with the following:
a) The communication between each transmitter and receiver shall involve a unique message for
each signal status.
b) The communication message shall include information uniquely identifying each transmitter.
c) The communication message components that identify the individual transmitter shall permit at
least 256 unique combinations. For larger systems, the number of combinations shall be
increased so that the number of combinations available to the system is numerically equivalent to
eight times the maximum number of transmitters that may be used within the system. For
example, if 50 transmitters are used, the system’s capability shall provide at least 400 unique
combinations.

73.2 As a measure of compliance with 73.1, the error (falsing) rate of the receiver is to be determined by
utilizing the test procedure described for reference level determination, see 68.1.1 – 68.1.9 except for the
following:

a) Batteries depleted to the trouble signal level are to be installed in the transmitter. See 68.1.9
for depleted battery simulation.

b) The transmitter is to be physically oriented for worst-casesignaling as determined during
reference level determination. See 68.1.8.

c) A counter is to be connected to the transmitter to record the number of transmissions. The
arrangement is not to interfere with the transmitter output.
d) The transmitter is to be conditioned for continuous transmissions:
1) 1,000,000 messages with one element incorrect, then
2) 1,000,000 messages with two elements incorrect, and finally
3) 1,000,000 messages with three elements incorrect. See 70.6 for alternate transmitter
Configurations
e) A counter is to be connected to the receiver that will record the number of incorrect messages
accepted as valid messages by the receiver.

f) The test is to be continued until at least 1,000,000 messages are completed for each of the
three conditions of incorrect transmission, except that if zero incorrect messages are accepted as
valid after the first 100,000 messages, the test at that number of incorrect elements per message
and any higher number of incorrect elements per message need not be conducted.

g) The test shall comply with the specifications in Table 73.1.

73.3 The test is to be conducted in both a radio quietand radio noisyenvironment as described in
Interference Immunity, Section 69.
74 Throughput Rate

74.1 For the purpose of these requirements, the throughput rate is a measure of the ability of a receiver
to accurately interpret and execute upon receipt of a correct signal in order to achieve a high degree of
assurance that alarm or emergency signals are not lost. The transmitter/receiver combination shall be
structured so that alarm or emergency signals take precedence over all other signals. The prioritization
may be achieved by:
a) Extending the duration of the signal,
b) Repeating the alarm or emergency signal, or
c) Any other means that can be demonstrated to be equivalent. If multiple services are utilized
on the same system, the priority levels of signals shall be:
1) Fire alarm.
2) Medical or panic alarm.
3) Security alarm.
4) Trouble and supervisory signals.
5) Other.
74.2 The throughput rate of the receiver is to be determined by utilizing the test procedure described for
the error (falsing) rate, 73.2 and 73.3, except that only correct signals of each type are to be transmitted.
The test results shall comply with Table 74.1. The test may be conducted for 100,000 cycles rather than
1,000,000 if the test results comply with the 100,000 signals completed row in Table 74.1.

74.3 If the test results in the Radio Noisyenvironment comply with those corresponding missed signal
specifications for the Radio Quietenvironment in Table 74.1, the latter tests are waived and the unit is
considered to comply with the requirements specified for Radio Quiet.

75 Transmitter Stability Test

75.1 The intended performance of a transmitter shall not be degraded nor shall the output signal
frequency vary beyond the rated receiver input frequency while the transmitter and receiver (and repeater
if used) are exposed and tested under the following environmental conditions:
a) 0°C (32°F) for 3 hours.
b) 49°C (120°F) for 3 hours.
c) 85 5 percent relative humidity at 30 2°C (86 2°F) for 24 hours.

76 Transmitter Accelerated Aging Test
76.1 A transmitter shall operate for its intended signaling performance as specified in 75.1 after being
exposed for 30 days to an ambient temperature of 70°C (158°F), followed by a stabilization period of 24
hours in an ambient temperature of 23°C (73.4°F). During the test, the unit is to be powered from either
a separate power supply adjusted to the rated nominal battery voltage, or the battery if it is capable of
maintaining nominal voltage for the test duration.

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Categories

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Testing
EMI/RFI Testing
FCC Testing

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